Yıl 2017, Cilt 17, Sayı 4, Sayfalar 293 - 299 2017-12-20

Kannabinoidlerin Kötüye Kullanımı
Abuse of Cannabinoids

Halil Kara [1]

126 347

Yüzyıllardır tedavide ve keyif verici amaçla kullanılan Hint keneviri veya esrar adıyla bilinen “Cannabis sativa”, içeriğinde kannabinoidler denilen bileşenleri barındırmaktadır. Psikoaktif etkili tetrahidrokannabinol (THC), bu bitkinin temel bileşenidir. Sedasyon, kognitif
disfonksiyon, kısa süreli hafızada bozulma, zaman değerlendirmesinde değişiklik gibi etkileri olan esrar bitkisi (marihuana) yıllardır uyuşturucu ve keyif verici olarak yaygın biçimde kullanılmaktadır. Son yıllarda ise laboratuvar ortamında üretilen sentetik kannabinoidler (SK), giderek artan bir biçimde kullanıma girmiştir. Bağımlılık potansiyeli oldukça yüksek olan bu bileşikler 1990'lı yıllarda John William Huffman ve arkadaşları tarafından “JWH maddeleri” adıyla sentezlenmiştir. Günümüzde “Bonzai, Spice, K2, Jamaican Gold” gibi isimlerle bilinen maddeler, sentetik kannabinoidlerin bir solventte çözülüp çeşitli bitkisel karışımlara püskürtülmesiyle elde edilmiştir. Bu maddeler sigara, pipo ya da çay şeklinde pazarlanmakta ve zehirlenme veya ölümle sonuçlanan ciddi vakalara neden olmaktadır. Kannabinoidler insan vücudunda endojen olarak da bulunur ve immün sistem, iştah, ağrı, zevk hissi, duygu durum ve hafıza gibi çeşitli fizyolojik olayların düzenlenmesinde rol oynar. Endojen kannabinoidler araşidonik asit metabolizması ürünleridir. 2-araşidonil gliserol (2-AG) ve anandamid (araşidonil etanolamid) gibi endojen kannabinoidler kannabinoid reseptörlerine (CB1 ve CB2) bağlanarak etki gösterir. Kannabinoidler kötüye kullanılan maddelerden olmasının yanı sıra çeşitli hastalıkların tedavisinde veya semptomların hafifletilmesinde de kullanılmaktadır. Günümüzde kanser kemoterapisinde bulantı ve kusmayı azaltmak, AIDS hastalarında iştahı artırmak ve kronik ağrı tedavisine yardımcı olmak amacıyla FDA tarafından onaylanmış kannabinoid analogları bulunmaktadır. Ayrıca kannabinoid sistemin regülasyonunun nörodejeneratif hastalıklarda, postmenopozal osteoporoz, kanser, obezite, diyabet, karaciğer hastalıkları, kardiyometabolik komplikasyonlar, alkol-ilaç bağımlılığı gibi hastalıklarda faydalı olabileceğini gösteren çalışmalar bulunmaktadır.

Cannabis sativa, also known as Indian hemp or cannabis, which has been used for centuries for therapeutic and pleasure purposes, contains compounds called cannabinoids. Tetrahydrocannabinol which has psychoactive effect is the key component of this plant. Cannabis (marijuana), which has sedative, cognitive dysfunction, short-term memory impairment, deterioration in time perception effects has been widely used for many years as a drug and pleasurable substance. In recent years, synthetic cannabinoids produced in the laboratory have been used increasingly. These highly potent addictive compounds have been synthesized under the name "JWH substances" in the 1990s by John William Huffman et al. Nowadays, known as substances such as "Bonzai, Spice, K2 Jamaican Gold" are obtained by dissolving synthetic cannabinoids in a solvent and by spraying them on various herbal mixtures. These substances are marketed in the form of cigarettes, pipes or tea and cause serious incidents resulting in poisoning or death. Cannabinoids are also found endogenously in the human body and play a role in the regulation of various physiological events such as the immune system, appetite, pain, pleasure, mood and memory. Endogenous cannabinoids are arachidonic acid metabolism products. Endogenous cannabinoids such as 2-arachidonyl glycerol (2-AG) and anandamide (arachidonyl ethanolamide) act by binding to cannabinoid receptors (CB1 and CB2).
Cannabinoids are not only used abusively, but also for the treatment of various diseases or alleviation of symptoms. Today, there are FDA-approved cannabinoid analogues to reduce nausea and vomiting in cancer chemotherapy, to increase appetite in AIDS patients, and to aid in
the treatment of chronic pain. There are also studies showing that regulation of the cannabinoid system may be beneficial in neurodegenerative diseases, postmenopausal osteoporosis, cancer, obesity, diabetes, liver diseases, cardiometabolic complications and alcohol-drug addiction.

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Yazar: Halil Kara (Sorumlu Yazar)

Bibtex @derleme { amj364169, journal = {Ankara Medical Journal}, issn = {}, eissn = {2148-4570}, address = {Ankara Yıldırım Beyazıt Üniversitesi}, year = {2017}, volume = {17}, pages = {293 - 299}, doi = {10.17098/amj.364169}, title = {Abuse of Cannabinoids}, key = {cite}, author = {Kara, Halil} }
APA Kara, H . (2017). Abuse of Cannabinoids. Ankara Medical Journal, 17 (4), 293-299. DOI: 10.17098/amj.364169
MLA Kara, H . "Abuse of Cannabinoids". Ankara Medical Journal 17 (2017): 293-299 <http://www.ankaramedicaljournal.com/issue/32969/364169>
Chicago Kara, H . "Abuse of Cannabinoids". Ankara Medical Journal 17 (2017): 293-299
RIS TY - JOUR T1 - Abuse of Cannabinoids AU - Halil Kara Y1 - 2017 PY - 2017 N1 - doi: 10.17098/amj.364169 DO - 10.17098/amj.364169 T2 - Ankara Medical Journal JF - Journal JO - JOR SP - 293 EP - 299 VL - 17 IS - 4 SN - -2148-4570 M3 - doi: 10.17098/amj.364169 UR - http://dx.doi.org/10.17098/amj.364169 Y2 - 2017 ER -
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